At 1.1 miles one-way, the trail doesn't quite form a complete loop, but it leads from the trailhead area directly across the street from the Fontainebleau visitor center through the woods and emerges in the grassy lawn area just east of the large picnic pavilion near the pier and beach area. From here hikers can retrace their path to the trailhead or head up the park road back to the trailhead and cut some distance off of the trail's circuitous path. Along the way the trail passes the Alligator Marsh Boardwalk, a popular wetlands boardwalk spot for wildlife viewing.
The first portion of the Sugar Cane Nature Trail has signs naming some of the trees and flora along the route. Eventually signage disappears and the wide path heads through the woods and beneath the picturesque strands of Spanish moss hanging from the live oak trees. While the trail feels like it enters deep woods, it never actually gets too far from the core of the state park. To retrace the trail back to the trailhead, the total distance would be just over 2 miles if you choose to head over to the marsh boardwalk area.
There is no water along the way, but much of the path is beneath the shade of the tree canopy.