Please respect the outdoors by practicing Leave No Trace. Learn more about how to apply the principles of Leave No Trace on your next outdoor adventure here.
Kristen Fuller | 10.27.2018

​I wonder if the snow loves the trees and fields, that it kisses them so gently? And then it covers them up snug, you know, with a white quilt; and perhaps it says, "Go to sleep, darlings, till the summer comes again. 

Lewis Carroll, "Through the Looking-Glass"

I recently returned from a beautiful five-day trip in the Sierra where we experienced the full spectrum of weather. From lightning, thunder, snow and rain to sunny blue skies, Mother Nature tried her hardest to give us a beautiful beat down. Our itinerary consisted of a three-day trek to Charlotte Lake via Kearsage Pass from Onion Valley and back followed by a one-day trek up Mount Langley via New Army Pass from Cottonwood Lakes Trailhead. We followed the weather closely, so we were very prepared in terms of gear and trail safety, we were thrown a few curveballs (lightning storms on the pass and fighting off frostbite while packing away gear). At night temperatures dipped into the low teens and we woke up most mornings to a beautiful winter wonderland. Both of my friends hiked their very first 14-er, I saw some fall foliage and experienced the first snow of the season, we picked up a crew of PCT thru-hikers and drove them into Lone Pine, and we picked up a solo JMT hiker and drove him to LAX from Lone Pine. I love chatting with thru-hikers and listening to their amazing experiences! This trip, although challenging, was a win for all of us.

As we approach the winter outdoor season, it is important to understand that Mother Nature can and will take your life. Yes, the snow is pretty and can be fun, but it can also kill you. Each winter there are at least 2,000 rescues in North America and at least 100 lives lost because experienced hikers are unprepared. Summer hiking is not winter hiking; there is a whole different skill set needed in the winter that has nothing to do with your summer hiking ability. The gear list also differs. Depending on where you are going, you will most likely need a helmet, an ice axe, crampons/microspikes, and snowshoes, and you will need to know how to use them. Each winter I take a mountaineering course so I can practice my skill set and build on what I have already learned (same goes for skiing). I truly believe that if you do not practice this skill set on a regular basis in the winter, then you should not be out in the elements attempting a summit.

Shoulder seasons are my favorite seasons to explore the outdoors, but in my opinion, they are also most dangerous seasons because the temperatures are low but not frigid, there is enough snow on the ground to get you into trouble, and the weather can and will change on a dime. Hikers love getting on the trails as soon as they hear about the first snowfall, which can be a recipe for disaster. Strong winds and low visibility can make navigating difficult, ice-thaw conditions can lead to injuries, and low temperatures without the proper gear can lead to frostbite and hypothermia. True, you probably do not have to worry about avalanches and post holing during the shoulder seasons, but there are still plenty of reasons why you need to be cautious and should brush up on your mountaineering skills. Shoulder seasons should be treated as the middle of winter, regardless of the forecast.

Traction devices: snowshoes vs. microspikes vs. crampons

Microspikes are best worn on fairly level hiking trails covered with packed snow or ice. They provide that little bit of extra traction that you need when your boot treads stop giving you good grips. A car analogy is useful here: Regular boots are like winter snow tires with a more aggressive tread, but when they start sliding, you put on tire chains to get more grip. However, wearing microspikes means added weight on your feet, which can wear you out prematurely on a long hike. It is often possible to defer putting them on with better footwork, especially on packed snow. For example, if you splay your feet out and walk like a duck uphill, you can coax a little more traction out of your boots. While microspikes are marvelous winter traction aids, they do have their limits when you start to tackle higher angle slopes covered in ice. That’s when you want to switch to longer and sharper winter traction aid called mountaineering crampons.

Mountaineering crampons are best worn on higher angle ice, ice-covered rock, or mixed ice and bare rock when you need a deeper bite and more solid footing to climb a slope. The chains and spikes on microspikes have too much “give” in them and are too short to penetrate deeply into ice when you need to hold your full body weight. True mountaineering crampons attach to a very specific snow boot and do not fit a regular hiking boot.

Snowshoes have two functions: They provide flotation so you don’t sink as deeply into powdery or deep snow, which helps conserve your energy, and prevents post-holing, and they also have integrated crampons on their undersides that help provide traction on ice or packed snow and can be used instead of crampons in certain lower angle situations.

Additional winter mountaineering gear:

  • Ice axe
  • Climbing helmet
  • Crevasse rescue equipment
  • Climbing rope
  • Climbing harness

Outdoor Mountaineering Classes

REI offers a bunch of mountaineering classes and adventure trips. They offer two levels of mountaineering skill classes up Mount Baldy in the winter, and they also offer a great adventure trip with mountaineering lessons on Mount Shasta. Check out their website for all the details. Depending on the location, these classes and adventures can range from $100 to $800, but the price is well worth it.

Sierra Mountain Center offers lessons in mountaineering and backpacking out of Bishop. This is a great company, and since the Eastern Sierras are guaranteed snow in the winter, this is a safer alternative than Mount Baldy in terms of cancellations due to lack of snow.

Shasta Mountain Guides offer a multitude of multi-day trips up Mount Shasta for all levels of hikers. Many of these climbs also include mountain school where instructors teach mountaineering skills for individuals of all levels.

Read trip reports and watch road conditions

If you are preparing a trip out into the backcountry where you will be adventuring into snow and ice, make sure to read the local mountain forecasts and compare multiple weather reports. My favorite sites are Mountain Forecast and NOAA. You can search mountain ranges and tailor your elevation to see precipitation levels, temperatures, thunderstorm probabilities and wind speeds.

Are roads accessible? Most roads from the valley floor up to the trailhead are not plowed and therefore are not accessible after major storms. Always call the ranger station to check on road conditions and check with CalTrans to see if chains are required on major roads.  Make sure you know how to use chains correctly. I personally do not enjoy putting on chains, and therefore I do not travel on roads when chains are required.

Winter rescue statistics

  • A total of 46,609 people required search and rescue aid in the country’s national parks between 2004 and 2014.
  • The death toll from those incidents was 1,578, while another 13,957 people were injured or fell ill, according to data from the National Park Service. Search and rescue costs topped $51.4 million during that span.
  • Nine people have died in the local SoCal Mountains in the last three years. Eight were on trails with light traction devices on their feet and poles in their hands


Hypothermia is a decrease in the core body temperature to a level where normal muscular and cerebral functions are impaired. Hypothermia can happen regardless of temperature; for example, it can happen below freezing, at 40 degrees, at 60 degrees or any temperature below 98.6 degrees depending on the conditions and your peripheral circulation. Poor food intake, dehydration, cold temperatures, wet conditions, wind, and improper clothing and equipment can all lead to hypothermia. When I am hiking in elevation and in cold temperature, I always eat calories regardless, even if I am not hungry. If your body is calorie deficient, your core temperature will drop (same thing that happens during scuba diving). Alcohol intake can also lead to hypothermia because alcohol leads to vasodilation (dilation of your blood vessels), which creates blood flow away from your core.

Signs and symptoms of hypothermia

Watch for the "-umbles." Stumbles, mumbles, fumbles, and grumbles show changes in motor coordination and levels of consciousness.

Mild hypothermia

  • Core temperature 98.6 to 96 degrees F
  • Involuntary shivering
  • Can't do complex motor functions (ice climbing or skiing) but can still walk and talk
  • Vasoconstriction to periphery (fingers and toes changing white in color)

 Moderate hypothermia 

  • Core temperature 95 to 93 degrees F
  • Dazed consciousness
  • Loss of fine motor coordination particularly in the hands (can't zip up parka, due to restricted peripheral blood flow)
  • Slurred speech
  • Violent shivering
  • Irrational behavior (paradoxical undressing: a person starts to take off clothing, unaware that he/she is cold)
  • "I don't care attitude" (flattened affect)

Severe hypothermia 

  • Core temperature 92 to 86 degrees and below (immediately life threatening)
  • Shivering occurs in waves, violent then pause, pauses get longer until shivering finally ceases because the heat output from burning glycogen (sugar) in the muscles is not sufficient to counteract the continually dropping core temperature, the body shuts down on shivering to conserve glucose
  • Person falls to the ground, can't walk, curls up into a fetal position to conserve heat
  • Muscle rigidity develops because peripheral blood flow is reduced and due to lactic acid and carbon dioxide buildup in the muscles
  • Skin is pale
  • Pupils dilate
  • Pulse rate decreases

Assessing hypothermia

  • Mild hypothermia means that shivering can be stopped voluntarily
  • Ask the person a question that requires higher reasoning in the brain (count backwards from 100 by 9s). If the person is hypothermic, they won't be able to do it. Note: there are also other conditions such as altitude sickness that can also cause the same condition.
  • Moderate to severe hypothermia means that shivering cannot be stopped voluntarily
  • If you can't get a radial pulse at the wrist, it indicates a core temp below 90 to 86 degrees
  • If the person is curled up in a fetal position, try to open their arms up; if they curl back up, the person is alive.

Treating hypothermia in the backcountry

  • Reduce Heat Loss with additional layers of dry clothing, increased physical activity, and shelter
  • Add fuel and fluids
    • Carbohydrates: 5 calories/gram - quickly released into blood stream for sudden brief heat surge. These are the best to use for quick energy intake, especially for mild cases of hypothermia
    • Proteins: 5 calories/gram - slowly released heat given off over a longer period
    • Fats: 9 calories/gram - slowly released but are good because they release heat over a long period. However, it takes more energy to break fats down into glucose, and it also takes more water to break down fats, leading to increased fluid loss
    • Hot liquids - calories plus a heat source
    • Sugars
    • GORP (trail mix) has both carbohydrates and proteins/fats
    • Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco/nicotine
  • Add Heat
    • Fire or other external heat source
    • Body to body contact. Get into a sleeping bag, put on dry clothing, and make contact with a normothermic person in lightweight dry clothing.


Frostbite occurs when extremely cold temperatures cause skin tissue to freeze. To preserve itself, the body stops circulating blood to these “disposable” parts. Ice crystals form, blood vessels clot, and tissue death ensues. Frostbite usually affects body parts exposed to the elements or parts prone to losing temperature faster like the nose, fingers, ears, and cheeks. But frostbite can occur even when wearing boots and gloves.

Frostnip is an early indicator of danger. The skin can be pale or red, feeling “prickly” or numb. You may feel a burning sensation as warm blood flows back into nipped skin. Fortunately, the damage isn’t permanent at this stage. (This most recently happened to me while breaking down my tent in freezing conditions at Charlotte Lake).

Superficial frostbite will turn frostnipped skin pale, cold, and numb. Fluids in the skin freeze. The tissue may feel warm but be cold to the touch. Rewarming will cause stinging, burning, swelling, and may lead to blisters.

Severe frostbite affects the deep subcutaneous tissues below the skin. The skin will be numb, and joints may no longer move. The skin might be hard and waxy-looking. Black, hard skin indicates tissue death. Blisters will occur after rewarming.

How to avoid frostbite

  • Cold skin is to be expected when you are out in the cold. But keep an eye out for early indications on the cheeks, nose, and digits – red skin, numbing, or a tingling feeling. These are all early indicators of freezing skin.
  • Traveling with others? Keep an eye on each other. Because numbness is often a key indicator, the victim may not even know they have frostbite until it’s too late.
  • Dress appropriately for the conditions, wearing layers and staying dry. Pay particular attention to your feet, hands, and ears.
  • If you are predisposed to cold digits, consider using heat packs for boots and gloves, especially for little ones who are more likely to get frostbite.

Treating frostbite

  • Get inside: Treat as you would for hypothermia. Hypothermia is a more dangerous threat and should be ruled out or addressed first. Remove wet clothing and get into warm, dry clothes.
  • Rewarming should only be attempted if there is no chance of refreezing, which can cause further tissue damage. 
  • Immerse the frozen areas in warm (not hot) water. Frostbite inhibits your ability to feel temperature, so victims should have someone help them prepare a warm bath between 100 and 108 degrees Fahrenheit. If a warm bath is not possible, rewarm the affected areas with body heat.
  • It is not advised to rewarm frozen feet if you are in the backcountry. Once frostbitten feet are rewarmed, it is impossible for the victim to walk out on their own.
  • Do not rub the frozen area or use heating pads or stoves to rewarm frostbitten flesh. The tissue is extremely vulnerable and can easily burn.



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